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Gasoline—a petroleum product

Gasoline is a fuel made from crude oil and other petroleum liquids. Gasoline is mainly used as an engine fuel in vehicles. Refineries and companies that produce the finished motor gasoline sold in retail gasoline fueling stations may add various liquids so that the gasoline burns cleaner and meets air pollution control standards and requirements.

Finished motor gasoline meets the basic requirements for fuel that is suitable for use in spark ignition engines. Some finished motor gasoline may require additional blending with ethanol (a renewable fuel and oxygenate), detergents and other additives, and higher octane gasoline before it is delivered to retail outlets for sale to end users. Most of the gasoline that oil refineries produce is actually unfinished gasoline (or gasoline blendstocks). Gasoline blendstocks require additional blending and usually require ethanol before delivery to retail outlets as finished gasoline. Refineries produce some finished gasoline, but most of the finished gasoline sold in the United States is actually produced at blending terminals where finished gasoline, gasoline blendstocks, and fuel ethanol are processed into finished gasoline ready for consumer use. Blending terminals are more numerous and widely dispersed than refineries, and they have equipment for loading trucks that transport finished gasoline to retail outlets.

Most of the motor gasoline now sold in the United States contains about 10% fuel ethanol by volume. Ethanol is added to gasoline mainly to meet the requirements of the Renewable Fuels Standard, which is intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the amount of oil that the United States imports from other countries.

A gasoline pump showing different grades of gasoline
A gasoline pump showing different grades of gasoline

Source: Stock photography (copyrighted)

Three main grades of gasoline are sold at retail gasoline refueling stations:

  • Regular
  • Midgrade
  • Premium

Some companies have different names for these grades of gasoline, such as unleaded, super, or super premium, but they all indicate the octane rating, which reflects the anti-knock properties of gasoline. Higher octane ratings result in higher prices.

Before 1996, lead was added to gasoline as a lubricant to reduce wear on engine valves. Leaded gasoline was completely phased out of the U.S. fuel system by 1996. Manufacturers recommend the grade of gasoline for use in each model of a vehicle.

Last updated: September 19, 2017

Gasoline varies by grade and formulation

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Gasoline changes with the seasons.

The primary difference between winter- and summer-grade gasoline is vapor pressure. Gasoline vapor pressure is important for an automobile engine to work properly. During winter months, vapor pressure must be high enough for the engine to start easily. In the summer, a lower vapor pressure is required in many areas to reduce air pollution.

Gasoline evaporates more easily in warm weather, releasing more volatile organic compounds that contribute to health problems and to the formation of ground-level ozone and smog. To cut down on pollution, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires petroleum refiners to reduce the vapor pressure of gasoline during summer months.

In addition to the different grades of motor gasoline, the formulation of gasoline may differ depending on the location or the season. Federal and state air pollution control programs that aim to reduce carbon monoxide, smog, and air toxins require oxygenated, reformulated, and low-volatility gasoline. Some areas of the country are required to use specially formulated gasoline to reduce certain emissions, and the formulation may change during winter and summer months. These area-specific requirements mean that gasoline is not a homogenous product nationwide. Gasoline produced for sale in one area of the United States may not be authorized for sale in another area.

The characteristics of the gasoline depend on the type of crude oil that is used and the setup of the refinery where the gasoline is produced. Gasoline characteristics are also affected by other ingredients that may be included in the blend, such as ethanol. Most motor gasoline sold in the United States contains some fuel ethanol.

Last updated: September 20, 2017